It happened that Hitler had chosen this particular day for taking over Bohemia. Naturally considerable tension was felt in Budapest. It was customary for these performances to be given under the auspices and for the benefit of some organization. The Regent, most of the cabinet ministers, diplomats and local dignitaries were present. I made it a point to go every year, and on this occasion I attended with my daughter, son- in- law and some friends.
Before the prelude, a little Boy Scout came out and started to recite a speech, but he had scarcely got started when there was an unexpected interruption.
This took the form of chanting in unison - - what I later learned was "Justice for Szalasi! My son- in- law and I left our box to see what was happening. We were near the stairs and, having located the noise as coming from the gallery, we went up.
The chanting was interspersed with terrific shouts; we could not imagine what was happening. When I got to the top of the stairs I was astonished to find that the shouts were coming from the Premier leitenant suisse anti aging. Two or three men were on the floor and he had another by the throat, slapping his face and shouting what I learned afterward was: "So you would betray your country, would you? When he had thrown his man down, he began to mumble to himself, brushing off his clothes with premier leitenant suisse anti aging hands; and passed us down the stairs without saying a word.
Meanwhile, there was great excitement among the guards. The Regent's box led out into a room where they were stationed. They had not: heard the Arrowcross demonstration. All they knew was that all of a sudden the door of the Regent's box had opened and he had rushed out like a shot before they could get to their feet. The whole episode happened so quickly that they had no idea where he was until he came back.
A few days later, the Regent asked me to call, thanked me for having come to his aid and presented me with his picture. I was a little surprised at his deduction, but did not see any reason to contradict him. The whole incident was typical not only of the Regent's deep hatred of alien doctrine, but of the kind of man he is.
Although he was around seventy- two years of age, it did not occur to him to ask for help; he went right ahead like a skipper with a mutiny on his hands.
Likewise, he never permitted Hitler to treat him as the dictator treated the heads of other states. In Augustwhen Hitler, after seizing Austria and bringing the German army gesichtscreme mischhaut anti aging the Premier leitenant suisse anti aging frontiers, invited the Regent to become his military ally against the Czechsthe Admiral replied, according to de Kanya who was then chairman of the foreign affairs committee in the Upper House: "You will get another world war and you will lose it, because you have no sea power.
Hitler calmed down immediately and after that treated the Regent with respect, although the incident made him hate Horthy intensely and no doubt had a great deal to do with some of the things that happened later. The Admiral had learned as a youngster in the Naval Academy at Pola to behave with poise and dignity.
The statement that Hungary was a kingdom without a king and had as its head an admiral without a navy was often made. While it was true that Hungary never had a navy, Austria- Hungary had one and Admiral Horthy had been its commander in chief until The official language of the Naval Academy at that time was German and Horthy, although the scion of a Magyar family, never spoke his mother tongue without a slight Austro- German accent.
Like most Hungarians, though, he spoke many languages well enough to carry on a conversation without difficulty. To call Horthy "Regent" as we and the British understand the term, is not quite correct.
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A better title would be "Lieutenant of the Realm," although in Hungarian his official title meant "Governor. His great- grandson, Duke Géza, was determined to rule over premier leitenant suisse anti aging Western nation, not a loose federation of eastern tribes. To this end, he educated his son Stephen in the new religion of the West and married him to the Bavarian princess Gizella Stephen who succeeded Géza in and ruled untilconverted the pagan tribes of Hungary to Christianity.
A brilliant warrior and wise legislator, he forced his faith upon his subjects, convinced that only through Christianity could Hungary become a Western power. In the year he sent an ambassador to Pope Sylvester IIto ask for a crown which would establish the fact that Stephen was not a vassal of the Holy Roman Empire. At that time, only three persons - the Holy Roman Emperor, the Pope and the Emperor at Constantinople - had the right to crown a king in Europe.
By applying to the Pope, Stephen kept clear of political entanglements, both in the east and west. Sylvester sent Stephen a crown and the apostolic cross, to be carried before him on state occasions as a symbol of his new title "Apostolic King. This is the origin of the "millennial crown" around which the Magyars have built a comprehensive doctrine. Theoretically the king was elected and only became king when he was crowned by the nation.
Actually, it was as regent for the crown that the nation bestowed upon him such royal powers as the right to confer nobility upon his subjects. At the same time, the crown set limits to his rights.
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The territory was not his but the crown's - - hence he could not alienate it. This doctrine was by no means a dead letter.
By accepting the crown the king was bound to the constitution. For this reason, Franz Josef underwent the coronation only after completing his unconstitutional experiments. His presumptive successor, the Archduke Franz Ferdinandwas resolved to make changes that would have satisfied the Croats at the expense of the Magyars before accepting the crown. It was because of this that the Serbian government had him murdered infearing lest he destroy their plan of luring the Croats away from Austria- Hungary.
The events which followed upon his murder led to the installation of Admiral Horthy as regent of a throneless Hungary. Due to internal disorder and pressure exercised on Hungary by her neighbors, this government was unable to maintain itself.
In Marchthe French army of occupation, in contravention to premier leitenant suisse anti aging treaty of armistice, ordered large parts of Hungary to be ceded to Rumania.
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It collapsed after a reign of days of terror. The entire nation had been opposed to it. The peasantry, for instance, had refused to deliver food and all other supplies to the cities. Only by sheer force and terrorism could this government maintain itself, even temporarily. At the approach of the Rumanian army Béla Kun and his associates - among them, Mátyás Rákossi, virtual dictator of present- day Hungary - fled from Budapest to Vienna whence they traveled to Moscow.
Counter-revolutionaries stepped in, as Béla Kun and his followers fled, and revoked the republic which Count Károlyi had proclaimed before turning Hungary over to the communists.
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Hungary became again a kingdom, but the throne stayed empty. Instead premier leitenant suisse anti aging a king they chose to have a regent and wanted a man who would be acceptable to the West.
It is little known that Horthy was chosen regent largely by the grace of Great Britain. The British method of supporting him was subtle and circuitous. Admiral Trowbridgewho headed an Allied mission to Budapest, let it be known that Horthy would be a good choice. Probably the British navy had a stronger say in the matter than the Foreign Office.
Horthy had always expressed profound admiration for the British navy. Thus Hungary had a crown without a king - - had the benefits of a monarchy without its risks.
The illusion was ideal in a nation with a strong monarchist tradition. To all practical purposes, Hungarians had a republic; but every so often the Guardians of the Crown - - who as such held the highest positions in Hungary - - met with the prime minister to perform an ancient ceremony. Each had a key to the crown vault. When all three keys had been turned, the door was opened and the crown was examined to make sure that premier leitenant suisse anti aging was still intact.
All this was done under the surveillance of the crown guards, who watched over it twenty- four hours of the day. The vault was carefully locked at the end of the ceremony, a guard resumed his position from which the crown vault was visible, and the eternal vigil went on. It can be seen from this that the crown was much more important than the king and that Regent Horthy's position was not as odd as it might be in some other country.
He did not have the prerogatives that a crowned king would have had. The government was not responsible to him, but to parliament. Until February,when the Government Party adopted a new Regency Bill, he could not sanction or refuse to sanction laws; he could only ask for reconsideration.
In fact, his position was quite different from that of a premier leitenant suisse anti aging as we understand it. Horthy took his oath to the constitution very seriously; he never overstepped his authority. Looking back, there are times when I wish he had been less scrupulous, but his critics cannot have it both ways. Although the young emperor, King Charles had made him admiral and commander in chief of the Austro- Hungarian navy, all his devotion belonged to the memory of Franz Josef whose aide he had been.
He was already regent when Charles staged his two unsuccessful attempts to regain the throne. In Marchhe appeared in Budapest and asked Horthy to yield his power to him. The Admiral persuaded him to return to Switzerland. In October of the same year, Charles came by air and landed near the Austrian border where he was welcomed by a small number of faithful followers, chiefly former army officers; and with them he marched on the capital. The Hungarian war minister, informed of the event, left his office and went for a walk.
But Horthy ordered Captain Gombos, whom we shall see again as premier, to meet force with force. The king's detachment was dispersed, he fell into captivity and, as the British had insisted on his removal, it was aboard a small British gunboat that he was taken away down the Danube. Around these two events has been spun a story accusing Horthy of ingratitude, but he could not have given way without exposing his nation to extinction, because the British- backed Little Ententearmed to the teeth and opposed to restoration of the Hapsburgs, would most certainly have invaded and occupied the whole country.
The hapless Charles as he was depicted to me, must have been an utterly well- intentioned man who in peaceful times would have made an excellent constitutional ruler, but he was not a pilot for dangerous waters.
To a man like Horthy or Bethlen, the king's actions appeared irresponsible and amateurish. As far as I could discern, the Regent bore no grudge against Charles or his family and viewed the aspirations of Otto his son, with the sympathy natural in an old imperial and royal officer.
Faced with grave decisions, Horthy always asked himself and his advisers premier leitenant suisse anti aging would have been Franz Josef s attitude. I know of times when he had refused to do something but changed his mind on being shown that, in similar circumstances, Franz Josef had taken certain action. Franz Josef once he had abandoned absolutism, ruled but did not govern. With smaller rights, Horthy served as a constitutional figurehead. As such, was Horthy a good ruler?
He was not brilliant, but it is questioned whether constitutional rulers should be brilliant. He had, however, an abundance of common sense, great patriotism, honesty and integrity.
No one could truthfully deny that he Svájci anti aging hűtőipari cég his best within the limits of his authority and according to his code. It was a rule that Admiral Horthy could receive no one without the consent of the Foreign Office.
On several occasions his aide came premier leitenant suisse anti aging to ask me to make a request for some American to see the Regent, because it was likewise a rule that the Foreign Office would not permit a citizen of any foreign country to see the Regent without the approval of the citizen's legation.
Each time the Regent requested it, I made application, but seldom did the Foreign Office approve. The Regent had to forego seeing a lot of people whom he would have liked to meet, because the Foreign Office objected.
They objected because they never knew what he was going to say.
Michele R. Vadon
Being an old sea dog, he was outspoken. It never occurred to him to dissemble, and he would not have known how. If any correspondent asked him questions, he was liable to give answers which would involve Hungary in all kinds of trouble. On the occasions when permission was given for newspaper men to see the Regent, it was always with the provision that their copy would have to be submitted to the Foreign Office.
On two or three occasions, I have seen newspaper or magazine men on their way from the Royal Palace beaming over the most wonderful interview they ever had - - sensation after sensation.
They could hardly wait to get to the telegraph office. But by the time the Foreign Office had finished, there was nothing left. It can be seen from this that Horthy had little or nothing to do with the foreign policy of the country - - in fact, little to do directly with the government itself.