Különbségek az abiogenezis és a biogenezis anti aging között


Sztromatolitok Cápa-öböl A Földön a legkorábbi élet több mint 3,5 Gya volt milliárd évvel ezelőtt[33] [34] [35] közben Eoarchean Era, amikor elegendő kéreg megszilárdult az olvadt Hadean Eon nyomán.

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Az eddigi legkorábbi tárgyi bizonyítékok a következőkből állnak: mikrofosszíliák ban,-ben Nuvvuagittuq Greenstone Belt Észak-Quebec, sávos vasképződés legalább 3,77 és esetleg 4,28 Gyo ringat. Megállapították, hogy a mikrobák szerkezete hasonló a közelben található baktériumokhoz hidrotermikus szellőzők a modern korban, és alátámasztotta azt a hipotézist, miszerint az abiogenézis a hidrotermális szellőzőnyílások közelében kezdődött.

A primitív élet földönkívüli eredetének az az előnye, hogy az életnek nem szükséges, hogy minden egyes bolygón kialakuljon, amelyen előfordul, hanem egyetlen helyen, majd elterjedjen az egész világon. Spontán generáció Fő cikk: Spontán generáció Traditional religion attributed the origin of life to supernatural deities who created the natural world. Spontaneous generation, the first naturalistic theory of life arising from non-life, goes back to Arisztotelész és ókori görög filozófiaand continued to have support in Western scholarship until the 19th century.

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According to Aristotle, it was readily observable that levéltetvek arise from dew on plants, legyek from putrid matter, mice from dirty hay, crocodiles from rotting sunken logs, and so on.

Hooke was followed in by Antonie van Leeuwenhoekwho drew and described microorganisms that are now thought to have been protozoonok és baktériumok. Van Leeuwenhoek took issue with the ideas common at the time that fleas and lice különbségek az abiogenezis és a biogenezis anti aging között spontaneously result from rothadásand that frogs could likewise arise from slime. Using a broad range of experiments ranging from sealed and open meat incubation and the close study of insect reproduction he became, by the s, convinced that spontaneous generation was incorrect.

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It was gradually shown that, at least in the case of all the higher and readily visible organisms, the previous sentiment regarding spontaneous generation was false.

The alternative hypothesis was biogenezis : that every living thing came from a pre-existing living thing omne vivum ex ovo, Latin for "every living thing from an egg".

Spontaneous generation considered disproven in the 19th century Louis Pasteur Charles Darwin ben By the middle of the 19th century, biogenesis had accumulated so much evidence in support that the alternative theory of spontaneous generation had been effectively disproven. Today, scientists agree that all current life descends from earlier life, which has become progressively more complex and diverse through Charles Darwin 's mechanism of evolúció által természetes kiválasztódás.

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Darwin wrote to Hooker in stating that, It is mere rubbish, thinking at present of the origin of life; one might as well think of the origin of matter. Ban ben A fajok eredetérőlhe had referred to life having been "created", by which he "really meant 'appeared' by some wholly unknown process", but had soon regretted using the Old Testament term "creation".

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InHuxley, as new president of the Brit Szövetség a Tudomány Fejlesztéséértdelivered an address entitled Biogenesis and Abiogenesis. It will be necessary for me to refer to this hypothesis so frequently, that, to save circumlocution, I shall call it the hypothesis of Biogenézis; and I shall term the contrary doctrine—that living matter may be produced by not living matter—the hypothesis of Ősnemzés.

I had originally, in unpublished writings, adopted the word Biogenézis to express the same meaning—viz. But in the meantime, the word Biogenézis has mindent anti aging made use of, quite independently, by a distinguished biologist [Huxley], who wished to make it bear a totally different meaning.

He also introduced the word Ősnemzés.

Abiogenezis

I have been informed, however, on the best authority, that neither of these words can—with any regard to the language from which they are derived—be supposed to bear the meanings which have of late been publicly assigned to them. Wishing to avoid all needless confusion, I therefore renounced the use of the word Biogenézis, and being, for the reason just given, unable to adopt the other term, I was compelled to introduce a new word, in order to designate the process by which living matter is supposed to come into being, independently of pre-existing living matter.

Scientists have proposed several plausible hypotheses which share some common elements. While differing in details, these hypotheses are based on the framework laid out by Alexander Oparin in and John Haldane inthat the first molecules constituting the earliest cells.

According to later models, the atmosphere in the late Hadean period consisted largely of nitrogen N2 and carbon dioxide, with smaller amounts of carbon monoxide, hydrogen H2and sulfur compounds; [] while it did lack molecular oxygen and ozone, [] it was not as chemically reducing as Oparin and Haldane supposed.

No new notable research or hypothesis on the subject appeared untilwhen Oparin reasoned that atmospheric oxygen prevents the synthesis of certain organic compounds that are necessary building blocks for life.

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Könyvében Az élet eredete, [] [] he proposed echoing Darwin that the "spontaneous generation of life" that had been attacked by Pasteur did, in fact, occur once, but was now impossible because the conditions found on the early Earth had changed, and preexisting organisms would immediately consume any spontaneously generated organism.

Oparin argued that a "primeval soup" of organic molecules could be created in an oxygenless atmosphere különbségek az abiogenezis és a biogenezis anti aging között the action of napfény.

Ember vagy számítógép?

These would combine in ever more complex ways until they formed coacervate droplets. These droplets would " grow " by fusion with other droplets, and " reproduce " through fission into daughter droplets, and so have a primitive anyagcsere in which factors that promote "cell integrity" survive, and those that do not become kihalt.

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Many modern theories of the origin of life still take Oparin's ideas as a starting point. About this time, Haldane suggested that the Earth's prebiotic oceans quite different from their modern counterparts would have formed a "hot dilute soup" in which organic compounds could have formed. Bernal called this idea biopoiesis vagy biopoesis, the process of living matter evolving from self-replicating but non-living molecules, [] [] and proposed that biopoiesis passes through a number of intermediate stages.

Robert Shapiro has summarized the "primordial soup" theory of Oparin and Haldane in its "mature form" as follows: [] The early Earth had a chemically csökkentő légkör.

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This atmosphere, exposed to energia in various forms, produced simple organic compounds " monomers ". These compounds accumulated in a "soup" that may have concentrated at various locations shorelines, oceanic vents stb. By further transformation, more complex organic polimerek —and ultimately life—developed in the soup. John Bernal John Bernal showed that based upon this and subsequent work there is no difficulty in principle in forming most of the molecules we recognize as the necessary molecules for life from their inorganic precursors.

The underlying hypothesis held by Oparin, Haldane, Bernal, Miller and Urey, for instance, was that multiple conditions on the primeval Earth favoured chemical reactions that synthesized the same set of complex organic compounds from such simple precursors.

Bernal coined the term biopoiesis in to refer to the origin of life.

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Bernal regarded the third stage, in which biological reactions were incorporated behind a cell's boundary, as the most difficult. Modern work on the way that sejtmembránok self-assemble, and the work on micropores in various substrates, may be a key step towards understanding the development of independent free-living cells.

Stanley Miller és Harold Urey performed an experiment that demonstrated how organic molecules could have spontaneously formed from inorganic precursors under conditions like those posited by the Oparin-Haldane hypothesis. The now-famous Miller — Urey kísérlet used a highly reducing mixture of gases— metánammóniaés hidrogénvalamint vízpára —to form simple organic monomers such as amino acids.