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Changes in the structure and organization of Hungarian society, along with the distinguishing features of Hungarian assimilation, helped to nurture a typically Hungarian, and more particularly Budapest, talent.

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These patterns of assimilation in pre-World War I Austria-Hungary, particularly in Hungary, and those in the United States share a number of remarkable similarities. The social and legal interplay of Jewish-Gentile relations such as religious conversion, mixed marriages, forced and voluntary Magyarization and ennoblement became relevant at the time of World War I, as well as during the social and political crises of The social dynamics of post-World War I coalesced to condition significant intellectual and professional emigration from Hungary.

It is sadly ironic that most Hungarian Jews who felt endangered after were in fact more Hungarian than Jewish, representing mostly an assimilated, Magyarized, typically non-religious middle or upper-middle class which had profoundly contributed to the socio-economic development, indeed, the modernization of Hungary.

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Their exodus was a tremendous loss for the country just as it became a welcome gain for the other countries they chose to settle in.

For the small groups of intellectually-gifted Hungarians, often of Jewish origin, who started their migration 1 frank 1968 suisse anti aging other European 1 frank 1968 suisse anti aging and the United States after the political changes ofthe typical choice was to one of the German-speaking countries. Austria and Germany were most commonly chosen, but many went to Czechoslovakia which boasted of prestigious German universities.

Albert Szent-Györgyi

After what often proved to be the first step in a chain- or step-migration, most Hungarian émigrés found they had to leave those countries upon the rise of Hitler as Chancellor of Germany and continue on their way, in most cases, to the United States. This constitutes just a partial list of the brightest people to leave Hungary forever. The War was followed by immense social convulsions that drove astonishing numbers of people into all directions.

Russian and Ukrainian refugees escaped Bolshevism, Poles were relocated into reemerging Poland, Hungarians escaped from newly established Czechoslovakia, Romania and Yugoslavia and tried to find some place in a new Hungary [1].

List of Hungarian Jews - Wikipedia

Outward movements from Hungary in the s were part of this emerging general pattern, and cannot be defined as emigrations proper. Many people went on substantial and extended study tours of varied length — just as others did before World War I.

Contrary to general belief, migrations were not limited to Jews suffering from the political and educational consequences of the White Terror in Hungary, as a reaction to the revolutions of Yet Jewish migrations were a definitive pattern of the s when the Numerus Clausus law of XXV excluded many of them öregedésgátló olajok college. A significant, though smaller group of non-Jews also left Hungary at the same time.

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Motivated by politics, poverty, or curiosity, gentiles with dramatically mixed convictions hit the road and tried their luck in Paris, Berlin, or Hollywood. Quota Laws enabled very few Hungarians to enter the United States.

Berlin junction. Patterns of Hungarian intellectual migrations, 1919-1933

Nevertheless, most migrants were directed to centers in Europe, and most of all, to Germany. German centers of culture, education, and research represented the pre-eminent opportunity for young Hungarians searching for patterns and norms of modernization.

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Research on the history of intellectual migrations from Europe, a broad and complex international field, was based initially on eye-witness accounts which served as primary sources rather than scholarly literature [2]. Research proper brought its first results in the late s and early s.

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Europe and America, [4]. From the beginning it was German-Jewish emigration that was best researched, a pattern that was partly reinforced by H. By the end of the s, the first guide to the archival sources relating to German-American emigration during the Third Reich was also compiled [6].

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The s produced the much-needed biographical encyclopedia which paved the way for further fact-based, quantitative research [7]. Soon the results of this research became available in a variety of German, English, and French publications focusing on German, German-Jewish and some of the other Central European emigration in the Nazi era [8].

His father, Miklós Szent-Györgyi, was a landowner, born in MarosvásárhelyTransylvania today Târgu Mureş, Romaniaa Calvinistand could trace his ancestry back to when Sámuel, a Calvinist predicant, was ennobled. His family included three generations of scientists. His mother Jozefina prepared to become an opera singer and auditioned for Gustav Mahler, then a conductor at the Budapest Opera. He advised her to marry instead, since her voice was not enough. Albert himself was good at the piano, while his brother Pál became a professional violinist.

The primary foci of the research of the s were the émigré scientists and artists fleeing Hitler, with growing interest in U. This unfortunate tradition has tended to survive in the otherwise rich and impressive historical literature on the subject.

The great and unsolved problem for further research on refugees from Hitler's Germany remained how to distinguish the non-German, including the Hungarian, elements: people, problems, and cases in this complex area.

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Laura Fermi was probably the first to notice the significant difference between German refugee scientists and Hungarians forced to leave Germany. Her Illustrious Immigrants included a few pages on what she termed the «Hungarian mystery», referring to the unprecedented number of especially talented Hungarians in the interwar period [10].

The systematic, predominantly biographical treatment of the subject was begun by Lee Congdon in his eminent Exile and Social Thought which surveyed some of the most brilliant careers of Hungarians in Austria and Germany between and [11]. A contribution on the achievement of the great Hungarian-born scientists of this century, mostly biographical in nature, came from fellow-physicist George Marx [12].

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In a recent book, István Hargittai assessed the achievement of five of the most notable Hungarian-born scientists who contributed to the U.